Thursday, May 14, 2015



In response to the 7.8 magnitude earthquake that struck Nepal on April 25, we cordially invite you to participate in a Roundtable Discussion on Early Lessons from the April 25, 2015 Nepal Earthquake and Implications for Preparedness of Metro Manila and other Megacities on May 15, 2015, Friday, from 9:30 AM to 12:00NN at the PHIVOLCS Auditorium, C.P. Garcia Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City. (Please see attached agenda)

The event is co-organized by EMI, PHIVOLCS, UP-SURP and ABS-CBN. The objective is to discuss how we can learn from the events unfolding in Nepal to better prepare and reduce the impacts of a scenario M7.2 Earthquake in Metro Manila. Topics that will be addressed by the panel of experts include Earthquake Impacts, Response Management, Transport and Logistics, Emergency Communication and ICT, Land Use Management, and Shelter Planning.

The event is open to the public which aims to engage various stakeholder groups into a fruitful discussion including local government units, national government agencies, private sector, academe, non-government organizations, civil society organizations, international agencies, development partners, and funding agencies.

As an international scientific organization, established in the Philippines for more than a decade, EMI strives to develop knowledge and raise awareness for reducing losses from earthquakes and other disasters.



Wednesday, May 6, 2015

The Board of Investments (BOI) has approved the guidelines to encourage its registered housing developers to build socialized housing projects in the areas devastated by Super Typhoon Yolanda. This initiative is BOI’s response to the massive devastation brought about by the super typhoon that led to loss of many lives and destruction of properties in the Eastern Visayas region.

Under existing rules, the BOI registered housing developers are required to allocate, for socialized housing, an equivalent of 20% of the project cost of their registered project or the corresponding area specified under the law.

The newly approved guidelines provide for additional modes for registered housing developers to comply with the BOI socialized housing requirement (SHR) and likewise supporting the rehabilitation efforts of government based on the principle of “build-back-better”. The principle focuses on long-term sustainable efforts to reduce vulnerabilities and strengthen capacities of communities to cope with future calamities. Registered developers may opt to donate either construction materials or land but only in areas specifically identified by the Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Recovery Plan (CRRP) also known as the Yolanda Rehabilitation Master Plan.

The Master Plan enumerates the areas and the specific government interventions to rehabilitate the communities affected by the super typhoon in different cities and provinces in the country which include Leyte, Capiz, Tacloban City, Iloilo, and Eastern Samar, among others. The Plan focuses on four areas of rehabilitation namely: livelihood, resettlement, social services, and infrastructure.

BOI’s Typhoon Yolanda Guidelines was published and took effect on 23 April 2015.


The recently accredited guidelines grant registered housing developers additional modes to conform to the BOI socialized-housing requirement (SHR) and, likewise, supporting the rehabilitation endeavors of the government based on the principle of “build-back-better.”

The principle aims for long-term sustainable efforts to reduce susceptibility and fortify abilities of communities in coping with future disasters.

Registered developers may donate either construction materials or land but only in specific areas recognized by the Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Recovery Plan (CRRP), also known as the Yolanda Rehabilitation Master Plan.

The CRRP specified the areas and the specific government intervention to rehabilitate the communities hit by Yolanda in different cities and provinces, including Leyte, Capiz, Tacloban City, Iloilo and Eastern Samar. The plan concentrated on four areas of rehabilitation, which are livelihood, resettlement, social services and infrastructure.

Timely release of budget

The National Economic and Development Authority (Neda), meanwhile, said it intends to focus on the timely release of the budget for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of Yolanda-hit areas.

With the transfer of the Presidential Assistant for Rehabilitation and Recovery to the Neda, the economic oversight agency intends to work closely with the budget department to ensure that fund disbursements do not impede project implementation.

“We shall focus on the timely release of the budget, for projects included in the CRRP,” Economic Planning Secretary and Neda Director General Arsenio M. Balisacan said in a news statement.

“For this, we shall be working closely with the Department of Budget and Management to ensure that the requisites for responsible public financial management do not impede the efficient implementation of urgently needed rehabilitation projects,” he added.

The Neda said the reconstruction and rehabilitation projects in the Yolanda corridor will be overseen by a project monitoring office (PMO) within the Neda, under the Regional Development Office, headed by Deputy Director General Margarita R. Songco.

The Neda said the PMO will use the existing Regional Project Monitoring and Evaluation System  in monitoring the status and progress of  Yolanda-related projects, programs and activities (PPAs). This will serve as the basis for regularly reporting on the progress of work.

The agency also assured that it will regularly consult with local government units in the disaster-affected regions to ensure that PPAs are responsive to local needs.

It will also work with development partners from the private sector, civil society and the international development community to rebuild the economies in the affected areas and restore people’s jobs and livelihood.

“We are determined to build on the gains and learn from the shortcomings. Always our focus shall be to hasten the recovery process by eliminating administrative and policy bottlenecks in the implementation of priority PPAs,” Balisacan said.

SOURCE

Friday, May 1, 2015


Millions of people have to evacuate their homes every year to avoid danger and seek safety out of harm’s way from potential or actual disasters. The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) estimates that 32.4 million people were newly displaced by sudden-onset disasters in 2012 alone. Timely, well prepared and effectively managed evacuation processes are critical to the survival and protection of exposed and vulnerable people before, during and after the onset of disaster. 

The manner in which evacuations are carried out may significantly affect the ability of practitioners to manage assistance to populations in evacuation sites. Some national disaster management authorities in disaster-prone countries have extensive experience in mass evacuations. For example, countries such as the Philippines and China have well-established procedures to evacuate hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of people from areas prone to natural disasters. Other countries find the process challenging or they have limited access to comprehensive guidance to manage the necessary planning process.

This Comprehensive Guide for Planning Mass Evacuations in Natural Disasters – the MEND Guide – came to life at the request of several countries and national disaster management authorities to address this gap and provide a quick reference document containing practical guidance. It also attempts to bring together emergency planning needs and humanitarian considerations which are complementary in so many ways. 

This pilot version of the MEND Guide is the result of a collective effort initiated by the Global Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) Cluster. A Steering Committee with representatives from different countries and international organizations was assembled and their active contributions were received on successive versions of the guidance. Appreciation for participation and contributions are offered to the representatives of Cuba, Cyprus, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Malta, Nepal, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America, International Organization for Migration (IOM), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), Professor Duncan Shaw of the Warwick Business School, Elizabeth Ferris of the Brookings Institution, the Global Protection Cluster and the European Commission Directorate
General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (DG ECHO).

Further thanks are given to IDMC for the insights shared and continued support throughout the drafting of the MEND Guide. IDMC is a leading source of information, data and analysis on internally displaced persons worldwide, and a key collaborator of the CCCM Cluster.

Special thanks are given to Vera Goldschmidt of IOM in acknowledgement of her work in facilitating the Steering Committee and leading the drafting of the Guide. A special mention should also be made of those who have also assisted in the drafting of the Guide – Julia Pacitto, Mallory Carlson, Debora Gonzalez, Anna Reichenberg of IOM, Andrew Cusack of UNHCR, and Michelle Yonetani of IDMC.

The Global CCCM Cluster would like to thank DG ECHO, which has generously funded this initiative.


Guidelines for Disaster-Resilient Buildings & Structures
by Ar. Rey S. Gabitan
Head, UAP Emergency Architects



Typhoon-Resilient Design Strategies:
The main strategy in protecting buildings from strong winds is to maintain the integrity of the building envelope, including roofs and windows, and to design the building to withstand the expected lateral and uplift forces. The following are some strategies that can be employed to make the construction system more wind-resilient and which could possibly withstand more than 250 kph winds:





Building Shape
o The most important single factor in determining the performance of buildings in typhoons is the building shape. Simple, compact, symmetrical shapes are best.
o The best shape to resist high winds is a square. The square plan is better than the rectangle since it allows high winds to go around them. The rectangle is better than the L-shaped plan. For rectangular shapes, the best layout is when the length is not more than three (3) times the width.
o If other shapes are desired, efforts should be made to strengthen the corners.
o If longer shapes are used, they must be designed to withstand the forces of the wind.
o For groups of buildings, a cluster arrangement can be followed in preference to row type.


Roof Form/Shape
o Use a hip roof. This is the strongest type with all sides of the roof sloped. Hip roofs offer much less wind resistance than gable roofs.
o For gable roofs, use a high pitched roof.
o Avoid a low-pitched roof. Roof pitch angle at least 25°. Experience and experiment have shown that the hip roof with the pitch in 25° to 40° range has best record of wind resistance.

Roof Overhangs
o Avoid large overhangs as high wind force build up under them.
o Roof eaves can be limited to 18 - 20 inches.
o If overhangs or canopies are desired, they should be braced by ties held to the main structure.
o Roof overhangs for verandah, patio, terraces and balconies should be designed as  separate construction rather than extensions of the main roof of the building. They can break-away from the main roof structure  without damaging the rest of the house.

Roofing Sheets
o if possible, use long-span roof sheets.
o If the sheeting is too thin or there are too few fittings, the nails or screws may tear through the sheet. If galvanized sheets are used, 24 gauge is recommended.
o Roofing sheets usually fail at ridges where capping comes off, at gable ends where sheetings rolls up sideways and at eaves where sheets lift up. At ridges, eaves and overhangs, provide fixings at every two (2) corrugations. At all other locations, provide fixings at every three (3) corrugation at maximum spacing.
o Use galvanized iron flats under the fixings.
o Use fittings with a broad washer or dome head (zinc nail). To use more fixings for each sheet, put in the laths at closer centres and nail closer together.
o Screws hold better than nails so fewer screws can be used. But the sheeting must be thick or they will tear through.
o When using screws for corrugated galvanized roof sheets, use proper drive screws. Be sure that the screws go into the purlins at least fifty (50) mm. Use large washers under the screw heads to prevent the roof sheets from tearing when pulled upward by high winds.
o Nails do not hold as well as screws. Use nails with wide heads and long enough to bend over below the lath. Galvanized coated nails are better than ordinary wire nails.
o Spacing for laths and number of fixings will vary with the gauge of sheeting used. Laths should be placed closer together for thin sheets to provide space for extra fixings. A guide to the number of fixings and spacing of laths is shown below.
 Gauge of Sheeting                  Spacing of Laths
26                                         450 mm – 600 mm
25                                         600 mm – 750 mm
24                                         600 for nails, 900 mm for screws

o The connections of cladding/sheeting to the truss need to be designed for the increased forces, especially at the corners and the roof edges considered as zones of higher local wind suctions. Failure at any one of these locations could lead progressively to complete roof failure. The following are recommended:
Sheeted roofs:- A reduced spacing of bolts, ¾ of that admissible as per IS:800, recommended. For normal connections, J bolts may be used but for cyclone resistant connections U – bolts are recommended. Alternatively a strap may be used at least along edges to fix cladding with the purlins to avoid punching through the sheet. Properly connected M.S. flat can be used as reinforcing band in high suction zones. The corrugated sheeting should be properly overlapped (at least 2 1/2 corrugation) to prevent water from blowing under the seam. Spaces between the sheeting and the wall plate should be closed up to prevent the wind from getting under the sheeting and lifting it. This can be done by nailing a fascia board to the wall plate and rafters.
Clay tile roofs:- Because of lower dead weight, these may be unable to resist the uplifting force and thus experience heavy damage, particularly during cyclones. Anchoring of roof tiles in R.C. strap beams is recommended for improved cyclone resistance. As alternative to the bands, a cement mortar screed, reinforced with galvanized chicken mesh, may be laid over the high suction areas of the tiled roof. Note:- Covering the entire tile roof with concrete or ferro-cement will prevent natural breathing through the tiles and will make them thermally uncomfortable.


Roof Frame Construction
o Roof trusses and gables must be braced.
o Provide a more rigid fastening system for the roof frame like metal tie-down straps (typhoon straps) that tie the roof structure all the way down to the foundation

o Provide various structural connectors that can drammatically reduce uplift which is the cause of the most significant roof damage in typhoons.
o If the rafters are not secure, the ridge can fall apart when strong wind passes over the roof. The ridge can be secured by using:
Collar Ties - Timbers connecting the rafters. Nail them to the side of the rafters.

Gussets  - Usually made of steel/plywood. This is used at the ridge.
Metal Straps over the top of the rafters.
o The connection of roof framing to the vertical load resisting elements i.e. wall or post, by providing properly designed anchor bolts and base plates is equally important for overall stability of the roof. The anchoring of roof framing to masonry wall should be accomplished through anchor bolts embedded in concrete cores. The weight of participating masonry at an angle of half horizontal to 1 vertical should be more that the total uplift at the support. In case of large forces, the anchoring bars can be taken down to the foundation level with a structural layout that could ensure the participation of filler and cross walls in resisting the
uplift.


o Adequate diagonal or knee bracing should be provided both at the rafter level and the eaves level in a pitched roof. The purlins should be properly anchored at the gable end. It is desirable that at least two bays, one at each end, be braced both in horizontal and vertical plane to provide adequate wind resistance. Where number of bays is more than 5, use additional bracing in every fourth bay.
o In order to reduce wind induced flutter/vibration of the roof in cyclonic regions, it is recommended that all members of the truss and the bracings be connected at the ends by at least two rivets/bolts or welds. Further the cross bracing members by welded/connected at the crossings to reduce vibrations.



Doors and Windows
o Avoid openings which cannot be securely closed during a typhoon.
o Doors and windows must be protected by covering and/or bracing. Hurricane shutters can protect windows from most wind-blown debris.
o Enhance the protection of openings by considering the addition of impact-resistant windows, doors, louvers, etc. An alternative is for glass panes be strengthened by pasting thin film or paper strips. This can introduce some damping in the glass panels and reduce their vibrations.
o Recourse may be taken to reduce the panel size to smaller dimensions.
o Since the failure of any door or window on the wind-ward side may lead to adverse uplift pressures under roof, the openings should have strong holdfasts as well as closing/locking arrangement.


Masonry Walls
o It is not uncommon for un-reinforced masonry to fail in severe cyclones. Walls braced by ring beams and columns have remained safe.
o All external walls or wall panels must be designed to resist the out of plane wind pressure adequately. The lateral load due to wind is finally resisted either by walls lying parallel to the lateral force direction (by shear wall action) or by RC frames to which the panel walls must be fixed using appropriate reinforcement such as seismic bands at window lintel level.





Flood-Resilient Design Strategies:

Location
o Avoid as much as possible any high-density development in low-lying areas (prone to flooding).
o Observe required easements along sides of waterways.
o House located on a river bed, close to running water, is very vulnerable to flooding. Not only the house, but also its contents are vulnerable to destruction due to heavy rains. Houses should not be built in such obviously vulnerable locations, or if they are, they should be designed to resist the hazards of their location.
o Houses must be located away from places subject to landslides where soil may move down a steep slope, debris flows where soil gravel and rocks may be washed rapidly down by heavy rainfall, and flashfloods.
o The house floor must be elevated above the surrounding area, with special consideration for possible area flooding, either by ground water, sea storm, or by tsunami.




Foundation
o Invariably a typhoon is accompanied by torrential rain and tidal surge (in coastal areas) resulting into flooding of the low lying areas. The tidal surge effect diminishes as it travels on shore, which can extend even upto 10 to 15 km. Flooding causes saturation of soil and thus significantly affects the safe bearing capacity of the soil. In flood prone areas, the safe bearing capacity should be taken as half of that for the dry ground. Also the likelihood of any scour due to receding tidal surge needs to be taken into account while deciding on the depth of foundation and the protection works around a raised ground used for locating cyclone shelters or other buildings.

Building on-stilts
o Where a building is constructed on stilts it is necessary that stilts are properly braced in both the principal directions. This will provide stability to the complete building under lateral loads. Knee bracings will be preferable to full diagonal bracing so as not to obstruct the passage of floating debris during storm surge.

Wall Openings/Window Openings
o Openings just below roof level be avoided for storm resiliency except that two small vents without shutter should be provided in opposite walls to prevent suffocation in case room gets filled with water and people may try to climb up on lofts or pegs.


Earthquake-Resilient Design Strategies:

Foundation
o Soil for a good foundation that can carry the weight of a house must be well drained so that it is dry and not waterlogged. Waterlogged soil can become liquefied in an earthquake—turn to a semi-liquid—so that structures sink into the ground.

Plan/Building Configuration
o Maintain the symmetry of a structure by distributing the seismic force resisting component evenly in all directionsis crucial in reducing the earthquake impact.
o Avoid soft storeys and asymmetrical floor plans, which can induce torsion.

Structural Framing
o The building needs a coherent structure. If the structure is coherent and strong, it protects the whole house.
- A regular structure (Columns and floors are all joined to each other in a regular format. Overhanging parts of the building are all well supported by continuous columns to the foundations. A complete structural frame around the building is tied in to the foundation, the walls and the roof structure)
- An integrated structural ring beam around tops of doors and windows connected to columns
- An integrated structural ring beam around top of walls connected to columns
- Triangular gable end walls must be structurally supported
o A wood frame structure mounted on a concrete frame/stub wall must be fully anchored together. A bracket made of noncorrodible metal, must be cast into the bearing structure to provide a structural connection for the whole wall through to the foundation. The wood column must be bolted to the bracket, and the bracket must be fully secured into the concrete.
o Join walls and roof to strengthen each other. Column reinforcement should protrude from the top of concrete columns and be bent around roof trusses for structural strength, or roof trusses should be strapped with metal ties to the wall structure. Exposed metal should be painted with rust proof paint to prevent corrosion.
o The joints of wooden roof trusses need to be bolted together and tied with metal straps to provide flexibility but not collapse under the forces of nature. Metal roof trusses must be welded together, welded to purlins, and welded to wall reinforcement for strength.
o The walls and roof need bracing against lateral movement. In order to resist lateral forces, walls and roof structure need cross bracing at all levels, particularly if it is a wooden structure. This is a major principle in the construction of traditional houses.
o Wall material must be tied to the building structure with metal ties. Metal wall ties are to be hooked at the end.
o All wall openings are to be tied to wall material.
o For reinforced concrete frame buildings with CHB walls, ties are to be cast into columns at 40cm spacing, and are to be a minimum of 8mm diameter.
o All houses are to have completely framed pitched triangular roof trusses. Roof trusses are to be placed over columns and tied to them.
o Most roof truss joints, and particularly central ones, are to be bolted, not nailed.
o Roof truss joints of 3 or more elements are to have a metal strap joining each roof component.
o Wood blocks are to be used for fixing purlins to roof trusses.
o Joints in roof structural wood are to be made with step joints, not with 45ยบ cuts.
o Joints in roof structure are not to be made near the middle of a span.
o All wooden parts of a house structure are to be cross braced, stumps, walls, and roof.
o Wood roof structures are to be cross braced in both directions.

Wall Openings/Window Openings
o Openings in load bearing walls should not be within a distance of h/6 from inner corner for the purpose of providing lateral support to cross walls, where ‘h’ is the storey height up to eaves level.



References:
1. Handbook on Good Building Design and Construction in the Philippines prepared by the GTZ Office Manila, UNDP Regional Center in Bangkok and the Secretariat of the International strategy for Disaster Reduction, 2008
2. Cyclone Resistant Building Architecture prepared by Ankush Agarwal, Technical Officer (Hazard Vulnerability Reduction), GoI – UNDP, Disaster Risk Management Programme, March, 2007
3. Building Infrastructure Resilient to Disasters prepared by Asiri Karunawardena, Chaya Samarakkody and RavindraBalasooriya
4. Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction prepared by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (ISDR, INEE, World Bank).


TOLDA (Tent)
This temporary Shelter was practically designed for low-cost budget only. The materials used in this option can be salvaged from the debris after the storm.

Modular components, Prefabricated frames and easy to assemble and tear down.











A private and decent temporary shelter for Filipinos is the goal of this project. It could be replicated and stored if not anymore in use. Made of sustainable materials, the aim is for a solution to a common problem.

Because the Philippines is an archipelago and has vast shorelines, a disaster brought by storm surges and tidal waves is inevitable. Add to that the many active volcanoes and a possible tragedy brought by an earthquake. A ready and easily buildable house is a measure of how ready the population is.

The cost is around P25,000.00 per unit and can be used as temporary shelter after a disaster.



PLEASE DONATE TO REBUILD NEPAL!!!

Also please mail us with designs of the safe, fast and economic building structures that can be erected with unskilled man power with local building materials. like wood, bamboo, stones, bricks, aluminium, tents etc. which are available in our locality.

Account Name: SONA Earthquake Relief Fund
Account number : 001-0002233 CA
Century Commercial Bank Ltd, Head Office, Putalisadak, Kathmandu, Nepal.
(Swift code: CCBN NP KA)

There are also few corresponding banks in various countries which charges less for money transfer which are given below. I request those people to transfer their funds through those banks . If you use those banks then their name and swift code are listed below in the image. For further credit to account maintained at

Century Commercial Bank Ltd, Head Office, Putalisadak, Kathmandu, Nepal.(Swift code: CCBN NP KA)
Account Name: SONA Earthquake Relief Fund
Account number : 001-0002233 CA

For more information, please visit their website:
http://sona.org.np/sona-earthquake-relief-fund/

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